Irodalom

Antal József: Válaszok egy SF-íróknak szóló kérdőívre


A következő interjúalanyunk Antal József biokémikus, karikaturista, író-szerkesztő, a Diagnózis és a Justitia című könyvek Zsoldos Péter-díjas szerzője, az Új Galaxis hajdani és a Terra jelenlegi szerkesztője. A kérdéseket, amiket alább megválaszol, 1969-ben tették fel egy írói szimpóziumon hivatásos amerikai SF-íróknak és szerkesztőknek, és bár eltelt azóta 42 év, és más kontinensen vagyunk, úgy véljük, hogy talán érdekes lehet 2011-ben az ugyanerre a tizenegy kérdésre adott hazai válasz. Az SFportal.hu először Philip K. Dick – a Csúszáló valóságok című kötetben is olvasható – válaszait tette közzé, majd Németh Attila a Galaktika irodalmi szerkesztője fejtette ki gondolatait. Holnap egy negyedik interjút is közzéteszünk…

1. Milyen okkal vagy okokkal tudná magyarázni, hogy a többi irodalmi műfajjal szemben a science-fictiont részesíti előnyben?

A sci-fi nem műfaj. Jó darabig hajlamos voltam zsánernek nevezni, de sajnos ezt is át kell értékelnem, ugyanis nem létezik tudományos fantasztikus írói mód. Leginkább semmilyen írói mód létezik. A sci-fi írói módját a krimiből lopta, lopja és úgy tűnik ez nem is igen lesz másképpen. Szóval, a sci-fi egyszerűen tematika, és ez a tematika az, ami engem vonz. Ennek a tematikának a lehetőségei, szabadsága. Amikor tizenévesen először találkoztam vele, a kor technológiai fétiseivel és nagyszerű ígéreteivel átitatva, erősen szabadsághiányos állapotban (mindez egy vidéki műszaki szakközépiskola fiúkollégiumát jelenti a nyolcvanas évek legelején, nem kell azonnal a bolsevizmusra gondolni), azonnal beleragadtam, mint darázs a lekvárba, és azóta sem tudok szabadulni belőle. Nem is akarok. De most már legalább kritikus vagyok. Olyanok lettünk, mint az öreg házasok: egy reggel arra ébredünk, hogy egy rút öregasszony/öregember horkol mellettünk… Szeretjük, szeretjük, de valljuk be nem az a húszéves, üde leányzó/ifjonc, akit elvettünk. Csúnyán ropognak az ízületei és időnkét büdös is.

2. Ön szerint mivel igazolható a sci-fi létjogosultsága, mi a legfőbb értéke?

Ezt a létjogosultságot igazolni pontosan ugyannyira kell, mint általában az irodalom létjogosultságát, és ez, ti., hogy az irodalom létjogosultsága egyáltalán igazolásra szorul, napjainkban sajnos kezd túlnőni a tréfa szintjén. Rohamosan haladunk az univerzális írástudatlanság felé. Nem akarok arról beszélni, hogy ez jó vagy rossz. Mindenesetre a „Rohamosan..” kezdetű mondat máris illusztrálja a következőket.

Természetesen a tudományos fantasztikumnak vannak az irodalom más irányzataitól megkülönböztető, jól definiált értékei. A legfőbb érték éppen az, amiről a magasirodalom olyan látványosan nem hajlandó tudomást venni: a sci-fi szembe mer nézni a technológia és az ember viszonyával. Sőt, néha hajlamos ennek a viszonynak a pozitív oldalait is észrevenni. Ami a viszony lehetséges negatív kimeneteleit illeti, a sci-fi ezek még bőségesebb tárházát kínálja, és éppen az a másik fő értéke, hogy a tudományos fantasztikum többnyire még a hivatásos futurológiánál is csapnivalóbb jós. Ami negatívumot megírunk, az szinte biztosan nem következik be. Megnyugtató anti-Kasszandrának lenni.

Van valahol egy magasabb rendű lény, falja a sci-fiket, és megijed attól, amit olvas, majd ellenkező irányba rendezi a világot. Sajnos túlságosan sok ellentétes impulzus érte, így mára egy kicsit összezavarodott… 🙂

3. Hogyan ítéli meg a sci-fi és a „fősodorbeli” irodalom viszonyát?

Plagizálhatnám Vonnegutot, hogy a “magasirodalom” számára a sci-fi az a kartotékszekrény-fiók, amit általában összetévesztenek a nyilvános férfivécék piszoárjával, de ez egyoldalú vélemény. Valójában sci-fi művelői és rajongói csaknem ugyanolyan ellenszenvvel és értetlenséggel viszonyulnak a “magasirodalomhoz”, mint az ún. elitirodalom művelői és olvasói a sci-fihez. Mindkét fél megtette a magáét, hogy ez így legyen, de azt hiszem a tudományos fantasztikus irodalom bizonyos sajnálatos vonásai önmagukban is nagyban hozzájárultak ehhez a megosztottsághoz – az irodalmi minőség meglehetősen sokszor csupán a retorika szintjén van jelen a sci-fiben, mi magunk is bőségesen vizeltünk és vizelünk bele abba a bizonyos fiókba, sőt bele is okádtunk – hogy ne feledkezzünk meg Hollywood „áldásos tevékenységéről” sem!

Más részről létezik az elitirodalomnak egy csúf trükkje: ha egy sci-fi mű küszöb fölötti közönségsikert ér el, akkor kanonizálja, beemeli, viszont attól kezdve tabu sci-finek nevezni, mindenféle egyéb jelzőket aggatnak rá, hogy jó messze kerüljön attól a húgyszagú kartotékfióktól, amit olyan szépen összerondítottak/összerondítottunk.

4. Mit gondol, a rajongói összejöveteleken, konferenciákon való részvétel, a kapcsolattartás a magazinokkal segíti vagy akadályozza a leendő írókat?

Ez a kérdés itt és most már értelmetlen, vagyis átértékelendő. Mindezek elvileg semmilyen befolyással sincsenek Magyarországon, mert nem léteznek. De az interneten szerveződő ilyen-olyan társulások befolyása nem elhanyagolható, bár ezt a befolyást leginkább negatívnak – kontraszelektívnek és kontraproduktívnak – tartom.

5. Milyen forrásokat javasolna a kezdő íróknak, amikből esetleg az ön tapasztalata szerint ötleteket lehet meríteni sci-fi történetekhez?

Nagyon nagy baj van az íróval, ha az ötleteket merítenie kell. Persze, manapság, amikor a sci-fiben az „ötlet” lett az egyeduralkodó, sohasem elég belőle. Érdekes, hogy a Sztugackijok műveiben alig van „ötlet”, mégis, valamiképpen jók. Egyben még bizonyos vagyok: kizárólag Wikipédia szócikkekből általában nem lehet elfogadható irodalmat produkálni.

6. Ön szerint egy kezdő sci-fi író novellák vagy inkább regények írására koncentráljon?

A kezdő író írjon! Mindegy, hogy milyen műfajban és formában. Egyszerűen nincs általános recept, hogy mivel kellene kezdeni, különösen Magyarországon nincs, ahol egyetlen sci-fi magazin létezik, így az „írjál előbb novellákat, közöld magazinban, aztán az enedik után belefoghatsz a regénybe” automatizmus – amiben egyébként sem hiszek – különösen nem működik. Különféle tehetségek vannak, van, aki a kisprózában jó, és sohasem ír jó regényt, van, aki fordítva. Lehet, hogy az, aki zsinórban az ötven csapnivaló novellával áll elő, kiváló regényíró lenne, de sohasem merte megpróbálni. Mindenesetre annak a kezdőnek, aki regényt szeretne írni, de nincs bátorsága, pár évvel ezelőtt még azt tanácsoltam, hogy írjon összefüggő novellaciklust vagy kisregényt. Most már nem tanácsolnám: a mai olvasó mindezt erősen alulértékeli, ma hatalmas, összefüggő szöveg kell, a megfelelő, bevált receptek szerint összegyúrva, divattémában.

7. Milyen tanácsokat tudna adni egy kezdő írónak a „valóságos” karakterek megteremtésével és a hiteles párbeszédek írásával kapcsolatban?

Éljen. Tapasztaljon. Legyen nyitott, befogadó. Olvasson jó könyveket. Nézzen kevesebb sci-finek nevezett filmet, főleg kevesebb sorozatot. Kerülje a kinyilatkoztatásokat, nagymonológokat, erőltetett humorizálást. Főképpen gondolkodjon! Minden leírt, kimondott mondat után mérlegelje, hogy beszél-e úgy élő ember?

Ne hagyja, hogy a „kis színes”, az ötlet beszivárogjon a karakterbe. Tudom, hogy nagy a nyomás a sci-fi olvasói részéről ezekre, de ez remélhetően csak átmeneti igény.

8. Mit gondol, egy hatásos regénynek feltétele az üzenet vagy a morális tanítás?

A kérdés, hogy milyen hatásról beszélünk. Ha a hatás alatt piaci sikert értünk, akkor mindezekre nincs szükség, bár ha ügyesen manipulálunk velük, kihasználva a korszellemet, akkor a siker is fokozható, mint ahogyan Dan Brown Da Vinci kódjában tudatosan kihasználta az ezredforduló környéki katolicizmus-ellenességet. Máskülönben ha valódi, tartós hatást akarunk, akkor kell az üzenet, mégpedig okvetlenül pozitív.

9. Ön szerint az egyes szövegek vizsgálatából milyen mértékben vezethető le a szerző álláspontja a politikát, a vallást vagy a morális kérdéseket illetően?

Ha nem levezethető, a mű bizonyos szempontból értéktelen – a szerzője ugyanis vagy nem volt jelen, amikor megírta, vagy tudatosan nem akart belekerülni – mindkét esetben a szöveg szenvedély nélküli, halott betű. Például Vonnegut minden sorában benne van, a Sztrugackij fivérek, Lem, Dick és Zsoldos is. Saramago vagy Kundera ott lapulnak a betűk mögött. Ellenpélda – nem sci-fi – Závada Idegen testünk című regénye. A szöveg szinte merev tudatossággal igyekszik a nemzeti(ségi) kérdést írói állásfoglalás nélkül megközelíteni, így aztán nincs is lelke. Az pedig egyenesen ebből fakadó hiba, hogy a szereplők antiszemitizmusa írói minősítés nélkül szinte megerősítést kap. Főként, hogy az egyetlen hősi tettet (vö. A kőszívű ember fiai) a lelke gyökeréig antiszemita, nyilas ideológus „követi” el a regényben, így személye, rajta keresztül eszméi valamiképpen igazolást kapnak. Nem hiszem, hogy ez volt Závada szándéka. De ugyanebből a szempontból a Sorstalanság is kapitális melléfogás. Primo Levi ugyanazt átélte, amit Kertész, és szenvedéllyel adta vissza. Hat is. Igaz, Levi bele is halt ebbe a szenvedélybe…

10. Azokban az években, amikor még tanulta a szakmát, melyik író volt a legnagyobb hatással önre? Továbbá milyen más tényezők, mint a családi háttér, oktatás stb. befolyásolták az írásban?

Ez megint egy Magyarországon másképpen értelmezhető kérdés. Amikor írni kezdtem, még nem léteztek creative writing tanfolyamok, így „nem tanulhattam a szakmát”. A kérdést abból a szempontból is hibásnak tartom, hogy az írás nem szakma, és nem lehet tanulni. Ha így lenne, mindenki, vagyis senki sem írna. Ja, hogy manapság éppen errefelé haladnak a dolgok… Egyébként a Sztrugackij fivérek, Vonnegut, Zsoldos, Bulicsov, Jakubovszkij, Dick, Lem, Herbert, Gaiman, Saramago, Rushdie és Hrabal hatottak és még mindig hatnak rám.

Jó lenne mondani, hogy az iskolai, egyetemi közeg mennyire megtermékenyítő volt, de ez nagyon távol áll a valóságtól. Műszaki pályán létezem tizennégy éves koromtól, itt nem jellemző az irodalmi inspiráció. Különösen kényelmetlen, hogy az írásra szabadidőt kell fordítani, és ami megtanulható, azt nem szervezett formában, hasonló érdeklődésű közegben kaptam, úgy kellett ellesni. Szerencsére vagy öt éve találkoztam Odóval, és ő sokat segített a írói tudatosság – nem öntudat! 🙂 – szintjén. Sokat segített az is, főképpen a tisztánlátásban, hogy az Új Galaxis négy számát szerkeszthettem.

11. Ön szerint mi a kortárs sci-fi legnagyobb gyengesége?

Az olvasóközönsége.

Nos, ez így durván, és leegyszerűsítően, meg talán sértőn hangzik, ki kell fejtenem! Nyilván azok fognak a legjobban megsértődni – mint rendesen –, akik ezt olvassák majd, holott ez általában éppen nem rólunk szól.

Azzal, hogy a harmincas évektől kezdve a sci-fi „kiszelektálta” a maga olvasóközönségét negatív minőségi spirálba került. Úgy is lehetne mondani, hogy ráállt a fiatal emberhímek „ízlésvilágának” kiszolgálására, de a kiszelektálás jobb szó, mert egy idő után a kiszolgálás eredménye az lett, hogy egyre szűkebb olvasótábort tudhatunk magunk mögött. Mára ennek a legfontosabb és legfájóbb következménye, hogy elveszítettük a női olvasókat, akik ma a piac meghatározó részét adják. Ez nyilvánvalóan kihat a példányszámokra. Mivel nem ebből élek, ez engem annyira nem bánt, a szelekció másik következménye, a kialakult sci-fi olvasói kánon viszont annál inkább. Az olvasóközönség jelentős részének nincs rugalmassága, nem mindenevő. Tanulmányok mutatják, hogy ez sajnos igaz a zsáner- és tematikus irodalmak mindegyikére (krimi, románc), de maradjunk a sci-finél!

A sci-fi olvasó egy olyan kánon szerint választ, amely a korábbi szűk körből választott olvasmányain, a  sci-fi kanonizált és divattémáin, és manapság az internetes locsogáson alapul. Mostanság még a sci-fin belül is lehet rész-rajongói táborokról beszélni, amelyek egyre szűkebb tematikák mentén rendeződnek. Ez borzalmas!

Ilyen befogadói közegben bármiféle irodalmi kísérletezés, kifejezésmód-játék eleve kudarcra ítéltetett, így az írók hamar le is szoknak róla, alkalmazkodnak az olvasói kánonhoz. Ennek éppen fordítva kellene történnie – ahogy a magasirodalomban időről-időre be is következik: egy új hang új kánont alakít ki. Nem azért, mert az alkotó annyira zseniális, hanem csupán azért, mert a generális olvasó nyitottabb az irodalmi minőség változásaira is. Horribile dictu, még örül is neki.

Nálunk megesik, hogy a szleng vagy beszédmód érzékelésére szánt nyelvi elemeket egyes olvasók helyesírási hibaként értékelnek. Ez veszedelmes szűklátókörűségre vall, ugyebár.


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