Könyvkritika

Kritika – Robert Holdstock: Mitágó-erdő


Robert Holdstock zoológia diplomával és némi kutatói tapasztalattal a háta mögött lett főállású író az 1970-es évek közepén. Több (különböző álneveken) írt sci-fi és fantasy regény után az 1985-ben megjelent Mitágó-erdő-vel díjak sorát gyűjtötte be, és a fantasy nagyjaival kezdték együtt emlegetni. Holdstock a regényében és a folytatásaiban a nagy elődjéhez, Tolkienhez hasonlóan a kelta mitológia hihetetlen gazdagságából merít, de meglepő eredetiséggel és ötletességgel szövi bele a regényébe, ahol szinte észrevétlenül él egymás mellett a realitás és az életre kelt kelta mitológia. A Gabo kiadó súlyos, közel harminc éves hiányosságot pótolt azzal, hogy megjelentette a Mitágó-erdőt magyarul.

robert-holdstock-mitago-erdoA regény címében található japános hangzású mitágó szó valójában a mítosz és az imágó szavak összevonásából keletkezett, és (bár a szerző ezt nem mondja ki, sőt a magyarázat egy részét az olvasónak kell összeraknia) Carl Jung pszichológiáján keresztül érthető meg. A regényben megjelenő mitágók az emberek kollektív tudattalanjából merülnek fel, a természetből nyernek alakot, és mindig alkalmazkodnak az adott korszak igényeihez, jellegzetességeihez. Ez elméletben még mindig nehezen érthető, talán könnyebb úgy feldolgozni, hogy az olyan ismert alakok, mint Arthur király vagy Robin Hood azért lehetett több helyen vagy időben egyszerre a legendák szerint, mert nem egy ember volt, hanem egy megelevenedett mitágó, akit egy nép közös akarata, vágya hozott létre. Létrejöhetnek egyéni mitágók is, amelyek nem egy népcsoport, hanem egyetlen teremtő személy elméjéből születnek, így személyre szabottak. Ez az antropológiailag hihető magyarázat válik fantasyvá azzal, hogy ezek a lények nem tűntek el a megalkotóik kihalásával/halálával, hanem továbbra is a regénybeli Ryhope-erdőt járják.

A Mitágó-erdő története egyetlen mondatban összefoglalható: egy egész életében magányos férfi küzd azért, hogy végre egyszer ne legyen egyedül. Egy mitágó iránt érzett szerelme egyszerre oldja fel a férfi és általában az emberi lény magányát, mivel saját sorsát a kollektív tudattalan alakjai között teljesíti be. A tartalom ez alapján elriasztóan komolykodónak is hathat, de a regény olvasása közben a világ, a cselekmény és a hozzá kapcsolódó érzelmek önmagukban lebilincselőek. Az már csak a plusz, hogy akinek van kedve és hajlama továbbgondolkodni, az újabb és újabb mélységeket fedezhet fel.

A Mitágó-erdő szerkezetileg két nagy részre osztható. Az első rész otthonnak csak kétesen nevezhető Tölgylakban játszódik, amely Anglia egyik utolsó ősvadonjával, a Ryhope-erdővel határos, ahol kelta és más mítoszok szereplői járnak a lombok alatt. A főszereplő Steven Huxley apjának a mániája volt ez az erdő, emiatt elhanyagolta a családját is, különös elképzeléseit pedig egy hevenyészett naplófélében örökítette meg. Amikor Steven Huxley a második világháború és egy csúnya sebesülés után tér haza a családi házba, a múlt még mindig kísért. A férfinek meg kell küzdeni egy olyan (addigra halott) apa árnyékával, akit csak a Ryhope-erdő érdekelt, és soha tudomást sem vett a gyerekeiről; akihez csak egy jegyzetlap ellopásával lehetett közel kerülni. Eközben Steven öccsén, Christopheren is mutatkoznak a mániás tünetek, mitágókról hadovál, és egyre hosszabb időre tűnik el az erdőben, majd végleg nyoma vész. Steven kezdetben igyekszik kivonni magát az erdő hatása alól, de egy titokzatos női mitágó, Guiwenneth iránt fellobbanó szerelme mindent felforgat.

A fordulópont az, amikor Christian vademberként beront Tölgylakba, és magával ragadja Guiwennethet. A regény második része a hero’s journey klasszikus szabályai szerint épül fel. Steven Huxley egy segítő barát, egy Keeton nevű pilóta kíséretében útra kel, hogy megmentse a nőt, akit szeret és egyben a mitágók világát, melyben öccse gyilkos pusztítást végez. A második részben az utazás méltón kalandos, és itt kap igazán nagy szerepet a jól felépített, hihetetlenül érzékletes mitágó világ.

Az egész valószínűtlen történetet egyes szám első személyben beszéli el a főszereplő Steven Huxley. Az elbeszélése szükségszerűen töredékes, például a mitágók pontos létrejötte nem kap magyarázatot, mivel maga sem érti teljesen. A főszereplő elbeszélésének egyoldalúságát töri meg és egészíti ki külső nézőponttal az apja jegyzetfüzetének tartalma, majd a regény második felében Keeton naplója. A mitágók által mesélt „történetek a történetben” további magyarázat helyett kitágítják a perspektívát. Ahogy a megjelenő alakok valahogy a kollektív tudattalan részei, úgy Steven és Guiwenneth szerelmében benne van a világ összes valaha volt és valaha bekövetkező románca is. Steven addig jár az ősi mítoszok között, míg maga is eggyé nem válik közülük, egy más népeknek és más koroknak szóló történetté.

A regény erőssége egyfelől az apa-fiú-testvér viszonyok őszinte és hiteles ábrázolása, és a fantasztikus világ az elején csak a háttérben jelenik meg, ahogy a kialakulatlan mitágók az ember szeme sarkában. Egy gyerekkori emlék, egy meglepő alak, pár apró furcsaság. Ahogy aztán Steven Huxley egyre jobban hisz a mitágó-erdőben, egyre többet lát belőle, ezzel párhuzamosan egyre távolabb kerül a való világtól is. A második részben a hagyományos értelemben vett valóság megszűnik létezni a főszereplő számára, mintha Stevennel kisétálnánk térből és időből egy másik világba és időbe, amelyhez legközelebb talán Tolkien ent-erdője áll. Csakhogy itt entek helyett más ősi alakok járnak a sűrű lombok alatt, akik egyszerre riasztóan idegenek és mégis ismerősek. Az Ryhope-erdő maga is egy szereplője a történetnek, él, terjeszkedik, védekezik, őrzi a titkait.

A Holdstock által teremtett mitágó világ a jung-i kollektív tudattalannal való játék miatt eleve rengeteg lehetőséget rejt, és ezt a gazdag szimbólumrendszer is erősíti. Már maga az erdő ősrégi szimbólum, a beavatást és az ismeretlen veszélyt jelenti. Steven a saját lelkének, tudatalattijának erdejében is barangol, a mitágók részben a saját elméjének szüleményei, így az azokkal való szembenézés is jelképes értékű. Az Urscumug szörnyetege jelképezi az apát, aki inkább volt érthetetlen, fenyegető rém, mint törődő szülő, de sosem ellenség. A sor még folytatható lenne…

A mitágókban rejlő lehetőségeket kihasználva Robert Holdstock további regényeket is írt a témában, melyek azonban nem folytatások a szó hagyományos értelmében. A helyszínük a Ryhope-erdő, és mitágók jelennek meg bennük, de a történetek még nyomasztóbbak, horrorisztikusabbak Egyelőre ezek közül egy sem jelent meg magyarul, remélhetőleg a Mitágó-erdő sikere után erre is sor kerül. Érdekesség, hogy az író 2009-ben bekövetkezett halála után egy esszékötet jelent meg The Mythic Fantasy of Robert Holdstock: Critical Essays on the Fiction címmel, melynek a Debreceni Egyetem két oktatója volt a szerkesztője.

Verdikt

Alapgondolat 100%
Regényvilág 100%
Cselekmény 95%
Karakterek 95%
Final Thoughts

Holdstock Mitágó-erdőjének a fantasy irodalom klasszikusai között van a helye J. R. R. Tolkien és C. S. Lewis művei mellett. Lebilincselően emberi történet, amely szimbólumai és mélyebb értelmezési lehetőségei miatt annak is erősen ajánlott, aki szkeptikusabb a műfajjal szemben.

Overall Score 97% Fantasy kedvelőknek kötelező
Readers Rating
2 votes
93

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