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P. K. Dick jövendölése a Szárnyas fejvadászról


Lassan az átlagos érdeklődésű filmrajongók és internet-felhasználók is megtanulják, hogy Ridley Scott kultikus sci fi-remekműve, a Szárnyas fejvadász 2019 novemberében játszódik, Los Angelesben. Most, hogy végre eljött az 1982-ben még távoli jövőnek számító év, számtalan cikk és mém jelenik-jelent meg a filmről és a benne ábrázolt világról.

Philip K. Dick, a film alapjául szolgáló kisregény, az Álmodnak-e az androidok elektronikus bárányokkal? írója 1981-ben egy előzetest látva így írt Jeff Walker producernek a készülő Szárnyas fejvadászról, melynek korai változataival kapcsolatban először erős fenntartásai voltak:

„Arra a következtetésre jutottam, hogy ez valóban nem science fiction; nem fantasy; pontosan úgy van, ahogy Harrison [Ford] mondta: futurizmus. A Szárnyas fejvadász ellenállhatatlan hatással lesz a közönségre és a kreatív alkotókra egyaránt – és úgy gondolom, hogy magára a science fictionre mint műfajra is. Miután harminc éve foglalkozom science fiction-történetek írásával és megjelentetésével, ez a kérdés különösen fontos számomra. Az igazat megvallva, az utóbbi években a műfaj színvonala fokozatosan, de kitartóan romlott. Semmilyen korábbi egyedi vagy közösségi teljesítmény nem érhet fel a Szárnyas fejvadász-hoz. Ez nem eszképizmus, nem a valóságtól való menekülés; a legtisztább realizmus, annyira éles, részletes, autentikus, és átkozottul meggyőző, hogy miután megnéztem belőle egy részletet, jelenlegi normális életem „valósága” hozzá képest ugyancsak haloványnak tűnt. Azt akarom mondani, hogy közös erőfeszítéssel korábban talán soha nem látott egyedi grafikus, művészi kifejezési módot hoztatok létre. Úgy gondolom, hogy a Szárnyas fejvadász forradalmasítani fogja a science fictionről alkotott elképzeléseinket, nem utolsó sorban arról, hogy a sci fi milyen is lehet.

Így tudnám összefoglalni: a science fiction lassan, de szükségszerűen a lassú halál felé tartott: belterjes lett, derivatív, elcsépelt. Ám hirtelen jöttetek Ti, a jelen kor legnagyobb tehetségei, s új életet leheltetek a műfajba, s ez új kezdetet jelent számunkra… Ami a saját, a Szárnyas fejvadász-projektben játszott szerepemet illeti, csak annyit mondhatok, hogy sosem gondoltam volna, hogy a munkámat, vagy egyes általam felvetett gondolatokat ilyen elképesztő dimenziókba lehet vetíteni. A Szárnyas fejvadász lezárja, beteljesíti, s egyben igazolja az életem és életművem. Köszönöm… hihetetlen üzleti siker lesz. Legyőzhetetlennek bizonyul majd.”

Tragikus módon Dick nem élhette meg a Blade Runner 1982 júniusi premierjét, a film bemutatása előtt nem egészen négy hónappal stroke következtében elhunyt – az utolsó filmkockák az ő emléke előtt tisztelegnek –, s így nem láthatta, hogy a regényén alapuló filmeposz valóban alapjaiban változtatta meg azt, amit a science fictionről gondolunk, noha a várt anyagi siker akkor még elmaradt.

A Szárnyas fejvadász bemutatója az író megítélésén is nagyot változtatott, aki ennek köszönhetően vált széles körben ismertté és elismertté, s került be kitörölhetetlenül a kultikus sci fi-írók csarnokába, s ez az alkotás nyitotta meg az utat számos ismert Philip K. Dick-filmadaptáció előtt, úgy mint a Total Recall—Az emlékmás, Különvélemény, A felejtés bére, Next—A holnap a múlté, s nem utolsó sorban Az ember a Fellegvárban c. sorozat.

Marti Zsófia


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