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Mágikus realizmus és science fiction – Ken Liu: A papírsereglet és más történetek


Kínában a science fiction hihetetlenül népszerű: júniusban rendezték az első Asia Pacific SF Cont Pekingben, de a regények és novellák kevéssé jutnak el a nem kínai nyelvű közönséghez (a kivétel eddig talán Liu Cehszin és A Háromtest-probléma). A kínai származású, de Amerikában született vagy felnőtt szerzők azonban helyettük is beleszövik a távol-keleti kultúrát a mainstream angolszász fantasztikus irodalomba.

Épp úgy, ahogy Ken Liu is, aki Kínában született, de tizenegy éves korában a családjával Amerikába költözött. Liunak a kétezres évek elejétől jelentek meg írásai különféle magazinokban és antológiákban. Inkább novellista, mint regényíró, illetve nem mellékesen műfordító is, ő fordította kínairól angolra, többek között a már említett A Háromtest-probléma című regényt. A Papírsereglet és más történetek című kötet Ken Liu legjobb novelláinak gyűjteménye, amelyet az Agave kiadó jóvoltából vehet kezébe a magyar olvasó.

Ken Liu a mesélésnek azt az ősi, archaikus hagyományát viszi tovább, amelyben a történetek elmondása révén emlékezünk, illetve próbáljuk értelmezni és a feldolgozni a körülöttünk lévő világot. A tizenöt novellát zavarba ejtően sokszínűvé teszi, hogy a fantasztikus irodalom különféle zsánerei keverednek benne a mágikus realizmustól a hagyományos science fiction toposzokon át az alternatív történelemig, sőt van, amelyik egyáltalán nem fantasztikus.

A klasszikus science fiction vonalat képviselő novellák közé tartozik Tökéletes párosítás, amely aktuális kérdéseket feszeget egy világról, ahol a Centillió nevű cég/algoritmus az élet minden területén segíti a felhasználóit, kérdés, hogy ez segítség vagy az emberi szabadság, önállóság megnyirbálása. Hasonló ehhez Hullámok című novella egy generációs űrhajó utasairól, illetve a számos díjait nyert Mono no aware a go játékról és egy napvitorlásról, amelyen az emberiség maradéka utazik. A Szimulákrum című novella testesíti meg azt, amiért a science fiction a legizgalmasabb zsáner mind közül: egy család tragédiáján keresztül mutatja be egy tudományos felfedezés társadalmi hatását.

Az írások egy másik csoportja tágabb értelemben fantasztikus: ezek talán a legszebb, legkülönlegesebb novellái a kötetnek. Az Állapotváltozás csodaszép metafora arról, hogy minden embernek egy tárgyhoz kapcsolódik a lelke. A Jó vadászatot!-ban a világunkból elszivárgó mágia a kínai steampunk megszületéséhez vezet. A Papírsereglet a kötet címadó és számos díjjal elhalmozott novellája, abszolút megérdemelten. Az életre kelő origami figurák története a fantasztikum egy egészen különleges formája, és a novella egyszerre egyszerű és könnyekig megható.

A harmadik kategóriába azok az írások tartoznak, amelyek egyáltalán nem, vagy csak nagyon érintőlegesen fantasztikusak, helyette mélyen gyökereznek a kínai történelemben. Legtöbbször a történelem elhallgatott rémtetteit próbálják feldolgozhatóvá tenni az utókor számára azzal, hogy kimondják. Ilyen novella A betűmágus az idegenségről és két kultúra találkozásáról a hidegháborús Tajvanban, vagy A világ íze, amelyben az Amerikában letelepedő kínaiak beilleszkedésében a gasztronómia segít, legalábbis ideiglenesen. A kötet vége felé két novella szokatlanabb formában érinti a témát. A permester és a majomkirály mesének induló története is a hatalom erőszakos fellépésével végződik. A legkülönösebb írás a témában a zárószöveg, az Aki lezárta a történelmet. Szándékosan nem írom, hogy novella, mert a dokumentumfilm-forgatókönyv formával játszó sajátos történelemlecke egy második világháborús kegyetlen orvosi kínzótáborról. A történet időutazáshoz kapcsolódó része ugyan logikátlan, de ezen túllendülve a felvázolt reakciók mély emberismeretről tesznek tanulságot.

A Ken Liu iránt érzett (az olvasás közben egyre csak fokozódott) lelkesedésem ellenére pár novellát nem tudtam hová tenni. Az első írás, a Bizonyos fajok könyvgyártási szokásai nem több, mint egy játékos ötlettár. A Visszatérő vendég egy noir jellegű krimi, amelyben csak villanásokra jelennek meg a Ken Liu novellák erősségei. A Csendes-óceáni-alagút rövid története alternatív történelmi novella a gyökértelenség, sehová sem tartozás érzéséről, de pont érzéseket nem tud kiváltani.

Azonban még azoknak a novelláknak kapcsán is, amelyek nem tudtak igazán megérinteni, elismeréssel kell adóznom annak, ahogy Ken Liu egészen kevés eszközzel, rövid írásokban képes élő, lélegző, tapintható világokat teremteni. Emiatt egy-egy hangulat, kép vagy érzés sokáig elkísér. Egy héttel később már azon töprengtem, hogy elfelejtettem a novelláknál a zsánereket, és csak annyi maradt meg, hogy ez – irodalom.

 

 

 

 


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